Saturday, October 13, 2012

Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Manusia

Sekarang, gue pengen nge-post tugas biologi gue.. Tapi pake bahasa inggris, coz di sekolah gue pake bilingual sih..



Human growth and development can be divided into two stages :
A.      Prenatal
B.      Postnatal

A.        PRENATAL
1.       Trivalen I
The first three months of embryos develop into fetuses whose length is approximately 5.5 cm. Shaped like a human fetus despite its enormous size. At the end of the first three months of this fetus also have started to move his hands and legs.
2.       Trivalen II
In the second three months, the fetus is growing and the length has reached approximately 19 cm. Hands and feet have grown even fingers and toes had begun to take shape, the face grows lengthwise. In the second three months of fetal heart rate have also begun to be detected. Fetal movement also become active.
3.       Trivalen III
In the third quarter the size of fetal growth occurs very rapidly. Body size is proportioned like a baby. Due to the larger body size, not too freely moving fetus in the womb. Before the birth of babies in general has reached a length of about 50 cm. Next the fetus will be born into the world and it is called as the baby.

Important time that occurred in the period in the womb such as :
1.       The First Month :
Already formed organs that are important as a tubular heart, central nervous system (the brain in the form of a blood clot) and skin. The size of embryo is 0,6 cm.
2.       The Second Month :
Hands and feet are formed, the inner genitals, cartilage (cartilage). The size of embryo is 4 cm.
3.       The Third Month:
All the organs are fully-formed, including the external genital organs. The size of embryo is 7 cm long with a weight of 20 grams.
4.       The Fourth Month:
It's called a fetus and the fetus begins to move on. The fetus weighed 100 grams with a length of 14 cm.
5.       The Fifth Month:
The fetus will be more active, to respond to loud noise and kicking. Fetal genitalia are more real and will be visible when carried ultrasound (Ultra Sonographi).
6.       The Sixth Month:
The fetus is able to move more freely by rotating the body (position)
7.       The Seventh Month:
The fetus moves with your head towards the vagina.
8.       The Eighth Month:
Fetus increasingly active and kicking. The weight and length of the growing fetus, such as the length of 35-40 cm and a weight of 2500-3000 grams.
9.       The Ninth Month:
The position of the fetal head was facing the vagina. Baby ready to be born.
1.       Period Babies (1 months – 1 years)

             a.       Babies aged 1-3 months:
- Looked up
- Follow objects with eyes
- See the smiles
- React to sound or noise
- Get to know her by sight, smell, hearing and contacts
- Hold goods held
- Babble babble spontaneously or react with
b.      Babies 3-6 months of age:
- Lift the head up to 90 °
- Lift the chest with hand rests
- Learn to achieve the objects within range or out of range
- Put things in his mouth,
- Trying to expand the field of vision
- Laughed and cried for joy when invited to play
- Began trying to find lost objects
c.       Babies 6-9 months:
- Sit unassisted
- Stomach and turned themselves
- Crawl grabbing things or approach someone
- Move objects from one hand to the other
- Hold small objects with thumb and forefinger
- Fun by throwing objects
- To get the word without meaning
- Recognize faces of family members and fear in others
- Begin to participate in the game of applause
d.      Babies 9-12 months:
- Stand alone without assistance
- Guided walks
- Imitating sounds
- Repeat sounds heard
- Learn to express one or two words
- Understand simple commands or prohibitions
- Great interest in exploring the surrounding
- Want to touch anything and inserting objects into her mouth
- Participate in games

2.       Period Toddlers (1-5 years)

Increased psychosocial skills and motor development
a.       Toddlers aged 12-18 months:
- Begin to walk and explore the house and around the house
- Arrange 2 or 3 boxes
- Can say 5-10 words
- Demonstrate a sense of jealousy and competition
b.      Toddlers aged 18-24 months:
- Be able to go up and down stairs
- Make up 6 boxes
- Pointed to her eyes and nose
- Construct two words
- Learn to feed themselves
- Draw a line in the paper or sand
- Begin to learn to control defecation and urination
- An interest in what is done by the larger
- Show interest in other children and play with them
c.       Toddlers age 2-3 year:
- Children learn to jump, climb, jump with one leg
- Making bridges with 3 boxes
- Be able to construct a sentence
- Use my words
- Asking
- Understand the words addressed to him
- Draw a circle
- Play with other children
- Is aware of the other environments outside the family
d.      Toddlers aged 3-4 years:
- To walk alone to visit neighbors
- Walking on the toes
- Learn to dress and undress themselves
- Drawing crosshairs
- Drawing people (only the head and torso)
- Know 2 or 3 colors
- Speak properly
- Asked how the child was born
- Listening to the stories
- Play with other children
- Show affection to his brothers
- Can perform simple tasks.
e.      Toddlers aged 4-5 years:
- Able to jump and dance
- Drawing, consisting of the head, arms and body
- Can count fingers
- Listen and repeat important things and stories
- Interest in new words and their meanings
- Protesting what they want where prohibited
- Distinguish between large and small
- An interest to adult activity.

3.       Period Children
a.       Children  aged 6 years :
- Increased agility
- Jump rope
- Play bike
- Outline objects with images
- Recognize the right and left
- Shows tempertantrum
- May oppose and disrespectful
b.      Children aged 6-7 years:
- Reads like a machine
- Repeat three numbers backwards sort
- Reading time for a quarter of an hour
- Young woman playing with her
- Boy playing with men
- Anxious to failure
- Sometimes embarrassed or sad
- Increased interest in the spiritual
c.       Children aged 8-9 years:
- Speed ​​and smoothness increases motor activity
- Using tools such as hammers
- Household appliances
- More individual skills
- Want to get involved in everything
- Liked the group and mode
- Actively looking for friends
d.      Children aged 10-12 years:
- Slow height increment
- Rapid weight gain
- Body changes associated with puberty may seem
- Able to perform activities such as washing and drying clothes alone
- Cooking, sawing, painting
- Drawing, happy to write a letter or a specific record
- Reading for pleasure or purpose
- Peers and parents is important
- Became interested in the opposite sex
- Very interested in reading, science

4.       Teenagers Period

a.       Teens (12-18/20 years)
- Self-concept changes with developmental biology
- Trying to apply values
- Added maximum height, weight
- Stress increases especially during conflicts
- Son of women start getting your period, seemed more fat
- Talk time on the phone, changing moods (emotional instability), sexual preference  abegan to look
- Conform to the standard group
- Boys prefer sports, young women like to talk about clothes, make-up
- Parent-child relationship reached its lowest point, began to break away from parents
- Fear rejected by peers 

5.        Adult Period

a.       Young adults (20-40 years)
- Developing personal lifestyle.
- Cultivate relationships with others
- There is a commitment and competence
- Making decisions about career, marriage and parenthood
- Individuals trying to reach and conquer the world, the habit of thinking rationally aincreased
- An educational experience, life experience and opportunities in the job increases.
b.      Middle adulthood (40-65 years)
- Lifestyle began to change due to other changes, such as children leaving home
- Children have grown up and started to leave the house
- Can be physical changes such as gray hair appears, crease lines on the face, etc.

6.       Old Period 

- Young-old (young and old), 65-74 years: adapting to retirement (reduced income), to aadapt to the physical changes, can develop chronic disease.
- Middle-old (middle-aged), 75-84 years: necessary adaptation to the decrease in the aspeed of movement, sensory capabilities, and increased dependence on others.
- Old-old (older men), 85 years and above: an increase in physical health problems.

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